Chirac served as Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976, from 1986 to 1988, and as the Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995. President of the French Republic: 1995–2007. However, Chirac became increasingly unpopular during his second term. ", Elgie, Robert.  The President of Union for a Popular Movement, who later served as France's Minister of Foreign Affairs, Alain Juppé, was sentenced to a 14-month suspended prison sentence for the same case in 2004.  He was a Roman Catholic.  After pursuing these policies in his second term as Prime Minister, he changed his views.  He was allowed to serve his 2-year sentence without prison time. The suspended sentence meant he did not have to go to prison, and took into account his age, health, and status as a former head of state.  Chirac said that "The Republic is not a dictatorship of rumours, a dictatorship of calumny. "Jacques Chirac: Surviving without Leading?." During his two terms, he increased the Elysee Palace's total budget by 105 percent (to €90 million, whereas 20 years before it was the equivalent of €43.7 million). It was not for France, therefore, to apologise for the roundup of Jews for deportation that happened while the Republic had not existed and was carried out by a state, Vichy France, which it did not recognise. He was re-elected in 2002. , In 1956, he married Bernadette Chodron de Courcel. Short of dissolving parliament and calling for new elections, the president was left with little power to influence public policy regarding crime, the economy, and public services. Chirac’s government left office in 1988, and Balladur was reelected to the National Assembly. Secretary of State for Economy and Finance: 1968–71. , Chirac died at his home in Paris on 26 September 2019 at the age of 86. Reelected in 1973, 1976. In France, a national day of mourning in honour of the former head of state (1995–2007) will be held Monday. Jacques René Chirac, (* 29. november 1932, Paríž, Francúzsko – † 26. september 2019, tamže) bol francúzsky politik a v rokoch 1995 – 2007 prezident Francúzskej republiky.Zvolený bol v roku 1995 a opätovne v roku 2002.Volebné obdobie mu skončilo v roku 2007.Ako prezident zastával aj ex officio post spoluknieža Andorry a Veľmajstra čestnej légie Opponents and supporters alike call Chirac "the Bulldozer". After François Mitterrand left office in 1995, Chirac began a rapprochement with NATO by joining the Military Committee and attempting to negotiate a return to the integrated military command, which failed after the French demand for parity with the United States went unmet. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.  He did not, during the broadcast, endorse any of the candidates running for election, but did devote several minutes of his talk to a plea against extremist politics that was considered a thinly disguised invocation to voters not to vote for Jean-Marie Le Pen and a recommendation to Nicolas Sarkozy not to orient his campaign so as to include themes traditionally associated with Le Pen. Chirac then declared that multipartism was a "kind of luxury.". Struggle for the right-wing leadership: 1976–1986, State responsibility for the roundup of Jews. The BBC News website looks at the career and life of Jacques Chirac - one of France's most senior figures who has served as president, prime minister and Paris mayor. General councillor of Corrèze: 1968–88. , After his departure from the cabinet, Chirac wanted to gain the leadership of the political right, to gain the French presidency in the future.  He was convicted of diverting public funds, abuse of trust and illegal conflict of interest. He reluctantly supported Giscard in the second round. The result was a victory for the No campaign, with 55 percent of voters rejecting the treaty on a turnout of 69 percent, dealing a devastating blow to Chirac and the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) party, and to part of the centre-left which had supported the TCE. ... the criminal folly of the occupiers was seconded by the French, by the French State".. He resigned from the cabinet and the right lost the next legislative election. They advocated a clash with Giscard d'Estaing because they thought his policy bewildered the conservative electorate. , Chirac died at his home in Paris on 26 September 2019, surrounded by his family.  In 1950, he signed the Soviet-inspired Stockholm Appeal for the abolition of nuclear weapons – which led him to be questioned when he applied for his first visa to the United States. Elsewhere, the plan for university reform (plan Devaquet) caused a crisis in 1986 when a student called Malik Oussekine was killed by the police, leading to massive demonstrations and the proposal's withdrawal. Jacques Chirac, a two-term French president who was the first leader to acknowledge France's role in the Holocaust and defiantly opposed the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003, has died at age 86. , During April and May 2006, Chirac's administration was beset by a crisis as his chosen Prime Minister, Dominique de Villepin, was accused of asking Philippe Rondot, a top level French spy, for a secret investigation into Villepin's chief political rival, Nicolas Sarkozy, in 2004. Balladur broke from Chirac along with a number of friends and allies, including Charles Pasqua, Nicolas Sarkozy, etc., who supported his candidacy. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected. On 15 December 2011, Chirac was found guilty for corruption. Find the perfect Chirac De Gaulle stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images.  A poll conducted in 2010 suggested he was the most admired political figure in France, while Sarkozy was 32nd. At the end of his first term it accounted for three percent of GDP. He argued for more socially responsible economic policies and was elected president in the 1995 presidential election with 52.6% of the vote in the second round, beating Socialist Lionel Jospin, after campaigning on a platform of healing the "social rift" (fracture sociale). , Chirac remained married, but had several other relationships.. At the 2002 French presidential election, he won 82.2% of the vote in the second round against the far-right candidate, Jean-Marie Le Pen. Chirac vainly attempted to rally Gaullists behind Prime Minister Pierre Messmer. , Chirac made his first run for president against Giscard d'Estaing in the 1981 election, thus splitting the centre-right vote. He said his country's nuclear arsenal had been reconfigured to include the ability to make a tactical strike in retaliation for terrorism. ", Gaffney, John. Shortly after taking office, Chirac – undaunted by international protests by environmental groups – insisted upon the resumption of nuclear tests at Mururoa Atoll in French Polynesia in 1995, a few months before signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Select from premium Laurence Chirac of the highest quality. Reelected in 1971. Elected in 1967, reelected in 1968, 1973, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1988, 1993: Member for Corrèze: March–April 1967 (became Secretary of State in April 1967), reelected in 1968, 1973, but he remained a minister in 1976–1986 (became Prime Minister in 1986), 1988–95 (resigned to become President of the French Republic in 1995). Jacques René Chirac (/ʒɑːk ʃᵻˈræk/; French pronunciation: [ʒak ʃi.ʁak]; 29 November 1932) is a French politician, who served as the President of France from 1995 to 2007. , Chirac's immunity from prosecution ended in May 2007, when he left office as president. President François Mitterrand had reiterated this position: "The Republic had nothing to do with this. After the publication of the Jean-Claude Méry by Le Monde on 22 September 2000, in which Jean-Claude Méry, in charge of the RPR's financing, directly accused Chirac of organizing the network, and of having been physically present on 5 October 1986, when Méry gave in cash 5 million Francs, which came from companies who had benefited from state deals, to Michel Roussin, personal secretary (directeur de cabinet) of Chirac, Chirac refused to attend court in response to his summons by judge Eric Halphen, and the highest echelons of the French justice system declared that he could not be inculpated while in office. Before that, he was Prime Minister of France twice, and Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995. "Skill in context: A comparison of politicians. Chirac was the mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995, and Prime Minister of France from 1974-76 and again from 1986-88.  According to his son-in-law Frederic Salat-Baroux, Chirac was again hospitalised in Paris with a lung infection on 18 September 2016. On the right, a new generation of politicians, the "renovation men", accused Chirac and Giscard of being responsible for the electoral defeats. Before that, he was Prime Minister of France twice, and Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995. Following the public ceremony, Chirac was buried at the Montparnasse Cemetery with only his closest family in attendance. For other uses, see. The Socialist Party (PS), joined by other parties on the left, soundly defeated Chirac's conservative allies, forcing Chirac into a new period of cohabitation with Jospin as prime minister (1997–2002), which lasted five years. Jacques Chirac, Président de la République, 1995 – 2002 Gouvernement d’Alain Juppé I, Premier ministre, 17 mai 1995 – 07 novembre 1995. Future Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin acquired much of his popularity for his speech against the war at the United Nations (UN). From 1995 to 2007, the President of … , After the poor results of the election, Chirac broke with Garaud and Juillet. C'est sans doute mon premier reportage d'actu. Jacques René Chirac ( París, 29 de novembre de 1932 - París, 26 de setembre de 2019) va ser un polític francès, Primer Ministre de França (1974-1976; 1986-1988), alcalde de París (1977-1995), President de la República Francesa i copríncep d'Andorra (1995-2007). He played no. , According to Chirac, his name "originates from the langue d'oc, that of the troubadours, therefore that of poetry". In November 2007 a preliminary charge of misuse of public funds was filed against him. This matter has been called the second Clearstream Affair. In March 1993, after conservatives won an overwhelming majority in the National Assembly, President Mitterrand appointed Balladur prime minister. After his baccalauréat, he served for three months as a sailor on a coal-transport. His superiors did not want to make him an officer because they suspected he had communist leanings. Chirac continued[when?] in, Gaffney, John. His position was weakened by scandals about the financing of RPR by Paris municipality.  On 30 October 2009, a judge ordered Chirac to stand trial on embezzlement charges, dating back to his time as mayor of Paris. Despite past opposition to state intervention the Chirac government approved a €2.8 billion aid package to troubled manufacturing giant Alstom.  Along with Chirac, nine others stood trial in two separate cases, one dealing with fictional jobs for 21 people and the other with jobs for the remaining seven. Jacques Chirac (Jacme Cirac en occitan) es un òme politic de nacionalitat francesa nascut a París lo 29 de novembre de 1932 e mòrt lo 26 de setembre de 2019.Foguèt president de França de 1995 fins a 2007.Exerciguèt dos mandats, un de 1995 a 2002 (que foguèt lo darrièr septennat de la Vna Republica) e l'autre de 2002 a 2007 (que foguèt lo primièr quinquennat de la Vna … Reelected in 1970, 1976, 1982. Because of Jacques Chirac's long career in visible government positions, he was often parodied or caricatured: Young Jacques Chirac is the basis of a young, dashing bureaucrat character in the 1976 Asterix comic strip album Obelix and Co., proposing methods to quell Gallic unrest to elderly, old-style Roman politicians. It had been expected that he would face incumbent prime minister Lionel Jospin (PS) in the second round of elections; instead, Chirac faced far-right politician Jean-Marie Le Pen of the National Front (FN), who came in 200,000 votes ahead of Jospin. The UNITAID project was born. Chirac was previously the Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988, as well as the Mayor of Paris from 1977 to … . Mayor of Paris: 1977–95 (Resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1995). Cohabitation significantly weakened the power of Chirac's presidency. Hospitalised in Hôpital Cochin after a car crash, he declared that "as always about the drooping of France, the pro-foreign party acts with its peaceable and reassuring voice". The 14-day period between the two rounds of voting was marked by demonstrations against Le Pen and slogans such as "Vote for the crook, not for the fascist" or "Vote with a clothespin on your nose". It was officially reported as a "minor stroke" or a mild stroke (also known as a transient ischemic attack). to be the voice within the G8 summit meetings to support international action to curb global warming and climate change concerns. Despite British and American pressure, Chirac threatened to veto, at that given point, a resolution in the UN Security Council that would authorise the use of military force to rid Iraq of alleged weapons of mass destruction, and rallied other governments to his position. Jacques René Chirac (29 tháng 11 năm 1932 – 26 tháng 9 năm 2019) là một nhà chính trị người Pháp. According to a July 2005 poll, 32 percent judged Chirac favourably and 63 percent unfavorably. After attending the École nationale d'administration, Chirac began his career as a high-level civil servant, entering politics shortly thereafter. In 1954, Chirac presented The Development of the Port of New-Orleans, a short geography/economic thesis to the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), which he had entered three years before. Chirac's internal policies initially included lower tax rates, the removal of price controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism, and business privatisation.  The gunman, Maxime Brunerie, underwent psychiatric testing; the violent far-right group with which he was associated, Unité Radicale, was then administratively dissolved. Giscard d'Estaing was elected as Pompidou's successor after France's most competitive election campaign in years. Ce soir je dîne avec est le rendez-vous quotidien des amateurs de mots qui tuent. During an official visit to Madagascar on 21 July 2005, Chirac described the repression of the 1947 Malagasy uprising, which left between 80,000 and 90,000 dead, as "unacceptable". Although it has been often interpreted by historians as the struggle between two rival French right-wing families (the Bonapartists, represented by Chirac, and the Orleanists, represented by VGE), both figures in fact were members of the liberal, Orleanist tradition, according to historian Alain-Gérard Slama. Councillor of Paris: 1977–1995 (Resignation). Chirac was previously the Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988, as well as the Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995. Le président le plus badass que l'on est jamais eu, tagsvous avez raison monsieur le premier ministrechiracmitterrranddébatpresidentielleelectionsmlgclash The would-be assassin fired a shot toward the presidential motorcade, before being overpowered by bystanders. After some months in the ministry for Relations with Parliament, Chirac's first high-level post came in 1972 when he became Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development under Pompidou, who had been elected president in 1969, after de Gaulle retired. Select from premium Jacques Chirac; of the highest quality. He proceeded to build up his political base among France's several conservative parties, with a goal of reconstituting the Gaullist UDR into a Neo-Gaullist group, the Rally for the Republic (RPR). Minister of Relation with Parliament: 1971–72. Pompidou considered Chirac his protégé, and referred to him as "my bulldozer" for his skill at getting things done. , Bernard Le Coq portrays Chirac in La Dernière Campagne and The Conquest by Xavier Durringer.. Along with Vladimir Putin (whom he called "a personal friend"), Hu Jintao, and Gerhard Schröder, Chirac emerged as a leading voice against George W. Bush and Tony Blair in 2003 during the organisation and deployment of American and British forces participating in a military coalition to forcibly remove the government of Iraq controlled by the Ba'ath Party under the leadership of Saddam Hussein that resulted in the 2003–2011 Iraq War. Select from premium Lionel Jospin Jacques Chirac of the highest quality. Chirac's first tenure as prime minister was also an arguably progressive one, with improvements in both the minimum wage and the social welfare system carried out during the course of his premiership. Jacques René Chirac (29 November 1932 – 26 September 2019) was a French politician who served as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007. , On 15 December 2011, Chirac was found guilty and given a suspended sentence of two years. , In Volume 2 of his memoirs published in June 2011, Chirac mocked his successor Nicolas Sarkozy as "irritable, rash, impetuous, disloyal, ungrateful, and un-French". Par ordre protocolaire .  His requiem mass was held at the Saint-Sulpice Church on 30 September 2019, celebrated by Michel Aupetit, Archbishop of Paris, and attended by representatives from about 175 countries, included 69 past and present heads of state, government and international organizations. Today the organisation executive board is chaired by Philippe Douste-Blazy.  He also published a plan to reduce the number of fighters the French military had by 30.. ", Chafer, Tony. Claude was a long-term public relations assistant and personal adviser to her father, while Laurence, who suffered from anorexia nervosa in her youth, did not participate in her father's political activities. Elected in 1979.  The French Army thus remained in Côte d'Ivoire as well as in Omar Bongo's Gabon. , When the RPR/UDF right-wing coalition won a slight majority in the National Assembly in the 1986 election, Mitterrand (PS) appointed Chirac prime minister (though many in Mitterrand's inner circle lobbied him to choose Jacques Chaban-Delmas instead). On the domestic front, neo-liberal economic austerity measures introduced by Chirac and his conservative prime minister Alain Juppé, including budgetary cutbacks, proved highly unpopular. , On 11 April 2008, Chirac's office announced that he had undergone successful surgery to fit a pacemaker. Elected as President of the Republic, he refused to discuss the existence of French military bases in Africa, despite requests by the Ministry of Defence and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Find the perfect Jacques Chirac; stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images.  His defence team decided not to appeal. While the far-right National Front grew, taking advantage of the proportional representation electoral system which had been introduced for the 1986 legislative elections, he signed an electoral pact with the Giscardian (and more or less Christian Democratic) party Union for French Democracy (UDF). Member of the Constitutional Council of France: Since 2007. In early September 2005, Chirac suffered an event that his doctors described as a "vascular incident".  He did not attend his trial, since medical doctors deemed that his neurological problems damaged his memory. He was also known for his stand against the American-led assault on Iraq, his recognition of the collaborationist French Government's role in deporting Jews, and his reduction of the presidential term from 7 years to 5 through a referendum in 2000. However, a controversial judicial decision in 1999 granted Chirac immunity while he was president of France. He had been suffering from memory loss and was in ill health. However, it is generally conceded that Mitterrand used the areas granted to the President of the Republic, or "reserved domains" of the Presidency, Defence and Foreign Affairs, to belittle his Prime Minister. It supports field projects that involve local people and provide concrete and innovative solutions. As it reached takeoff speed and lifted off the ground, it came within 30 feet of hitting Chirac's 747. Reelected in 2002. "La cohabitation de longue durée: studying the 1997-2002 experience. . The possibility of a further attempt foundered after Chirac was forced into cohabitation with a Socialist-led cabinet between 1997 and 2002, then poor Franco-American relations after the French UN veto threat over Iraq in 2003 made transatlantic negotiations impossible. He passed himself off, as a right-wing voter, by changing his voice. His character for a while developed a superhero alter ego, Super Menteur ("Super Liar") to get him out of embarrassing situations. Chirac was elected on a platform of tax cuts and job programmes, but his policies did little to ease the labour strikes during his first months in office. Nevertheless, the right won the 1993 legislative election. At the invitation of Saddam Hussein (then vice-president of Iraq, but de facto dictator), Chirac made an official visit to Baghdad in 1975. Chirac warned that "humanity is dancing on a volcano" and called for serious action by the world's leading industrialised nations. At about the same time, it became apparent that Juppé and others had obtained preferential conditions for public housing, as well as other perks. He was elected on Sunday 7 May, defeating Lionel Jospin. Furthermore, the satirical newspaper Le Canard enchaîné revealed the astronomical "food expenses" paid by the Parisian municipality (€15 million a year according to the Canard), expenses managed by Roger Romani (who allegedly destroyed all archives of the period 1978–93 during night raids in 1999–2000). "The Mainstream Right: Chirac and Balladur." , One of his first acts concerning foreign policy was to call back Jacques Foccart (1913–1997), who had been de Gaulle's and his successors' leading counsellor for African matters, called by journalist Stephen Smith the "father of all "networks" on the continent, at the time [in 1986] aged 72. During this period, he joined the French Communist Party, sold copies of L'Humanité, and took part in meetings of a communist cell. He held this post until 1995.. On 10 December 2015, Chirac was hospitalized in Paris for undisclosed reasons, and although his state of health did not "give any cause for concern", he would remain under the intensive care unit. Then, as state secretary of economy (1968–1971), he worked closely with Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, who headed the ministry of economy and finance. He obtained 20 percent of the vote in the first round, but lost the second with only 46 percent. A conservative and a neo-Gallist Chirac was responsible for the privatization of many French corporations. Jacques Chirac, French politician who served as the country’s president (1995–2007) and prime minister (1974–76, 1986–88) and was a dominant figure in 20th-century French politics. The nickname "Le Bulldozer" caught on in French political circles, where it also referred to his abrasive manner. He hired 145 extra employees – the total number of the people he employed simultaneously was 963. , On 7 March 2011, he went on trial on charges of diverting public funds, accused of giving fictional city jobs to twenty-eight activists from his political party while serving as the mayor of Paris (1977–95). Reelected in 1983, 1989. Chirac won re-election by a landslide, with 82 percent of the vote on the second ballot. , In the United States Chirac worked at Anheuser-Busch in St. Louis, Missouri. Jacques René Chirac (UK: /ˈʃɪəræk/ SHEER-ak, US: /ʒɑːk ʃɪəˈrɑːk/ (listen) ZHAHK sheer-AHK, French: [ʒak ʁəne ʃiʁak] (listen); 29 November 1932 – 26 September 2019) was a French politician who served as President of France from 1995 to 2007. "Iraq today does not represent an immediate threat that justifies an immediate war", Chirac said on 18 March 2003. / 48.838043; 2.326298. , Giscard has always blamed Chirac for his defeat.  He then attended the Lycée Carnot and the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. , For the first time, his leadership over the RPR was challenged. Chirac ran again in 1988, and lost again, then ran a third time in 1995 and won. He first ran for President in 1981, but lost soundly to the socialist François Mitterrand. At the age of 69, Chirac faced his fourth presidential campaign in 2002. As late as the 1988 presidential election, Chirac maintained this reputation.. European Military Support for Operations in Southwest Asia", "Chirac faces investigation into 'misuse of public cash, "Le dossier judiciaire de Jacques Chirac s'alourdit", "France: Jacques Chirac corruption trial opens", "Jacques Chirac trial faces further delays", "French ex-President Jacques Chirac guilty of corruption", "Jacques Chirac found guilty of corruption", "Chirac Found Guilty in Political Funding Case", Caught in deep water: Chirac swims against a tide of scandal, "The troubled daughter of a French President, hidden away for decades, has died", "BBC World Service: "Letter from Paris – John Laurenson on Claude Chirac's crucial but understated electoral role, "Chirac's wife tells of anorexic daughter's death wish", "Troubled Chirac's adopted daughter rides to his rescue", French leaders featured in extramarital affair website billboard campaign, "First lady tells of Chirac's infidelity", "The Hollande Affair and the End of Presidential Privacy in France", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jacques_Chirac&oldid=1000635222, French military personnel of the Algerian War, Chevaliers of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres, Grand Collars of the Order of Prince Henry, Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (France), Grand Crosses of the Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas, Grand Crosses of the Order of Vytautas the Great, Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Knights Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, Knights of the Order of Agricultural Merit, People convicted of misusing public funds, Recipients of the Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana, Recipients of the Cross for Military Valour, Recipients of the Grand Star of the Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria, Recipients of the National Order of Merit (Malta), Recipients of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", 1st class, State Prize of the Russian Federation laureates, Candidates in the 2002 French presidential election, Heads of government who were later imprisoned, Recipients of the Medal of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from April 2010, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles needing additional references from May 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from September 2019, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2019, Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Collar of the Order of Etihad (Order of the Federation), Bell, David S., Erwin C. Hargrove, and Kevin Theakston. In a speech made on 16 July 1995 at the site of the Vel' d'Hiv Roundup, where 13,000 Jews had been held for deportation to concentration camps in July 1942, Chirac said, "France, on that day, committed the irreparable". , Chirac criticized the Israeli offensive into Lebanon on 14 July 2006. He was then overpowered by bystanders. In his memoirs, Giscard wrote that between the two rounds, he phoned the RPR headquarters. "Jacques chirac's balancing acts: The French right and Europe. Because of his alleged improprieties, he was lambasted in a song Chirac en prison ("Chirac in prison") by French punk band Les Wampas, with a video clip made by the Guignols. Despite the rising awareness of global warming issues, the G8 focused on "energy security" issues. President of the Rally for the Republic: 1976–94 (Resignation). Chirac was advised by Pierre Juillet and Marie-France Garaud, two former advisers of Pompidou. Mr Chirac served two stints as prime minister in 1974-76 and 1986-88 and was mayor of his native Paris from 1977-1995. "Protocol, Image, and Discourse in Political leadership Competition: the case of prime minister Lionel Jospin, 1997-2002.". in Nester, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 00:33. It has been said during other student crises that this event strongly affected Jacques Chirac, who was afterwards careful about possible police violence during such demonstrations (e.g., maybe explaining part of the decision to "promulgate without applying" the First Employment Contract (CPE) after large student demonstrations against it). Chirac was beset by a series of corruption scandals dating back to his tenure as the mayor of Paris between 1977 and 1995. , Inspired by Charles de Gaulle, Chirac started to pursue a civil service career in the 1950s.
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